Urolithiasis has been documented as a cause of mortality in captive populations of yellow-footed rock wallabies, yet prospective investigation into potential risk factors for development of uroliths in wallabies is lacking. Following the death of two adult male yellow-footed rock wallabies from calcium carbonate obstructive urolithiasis, the remaining 26 resident adult wallabies were screened for the presence of uroliths and for potential risk factors for development of calcium-based urolithiasis. Comprehensive health screening included physical examination, abdominal radiographs, abdominal ultrasonography, complete blood count, serum biochemistry, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, urinalysis, urine chemistry analysis, and diet analysis. Urine was alkaline, and calcium carbonate crystalluria was present in several individuals. Serum calcium and 25-hydroxyvitamin D were within reference range of many mammal species. However, spot fractional excretion of calcium was highly variable, with mean values significantly higher than reported for greyhound dogs. Selected dietary components were discovered to have a high calcium level, high calcium:phosphorus ratio, and high dietary cation:anion ratio. The results of this investigation provide valuable data to help better understand calcium status and urolith formation in yellow-footed rock wallabies and macropods in general.